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Leukaemia, Specific Skin Lesions

The cutaneous manifestations of leukaemia include primary, specific skin lesions resulting from direct infiltration of the skin and subcutaneous tissues by leukaemic cells. Examples are leukaemia cutis, granulocytic sarcomas, and extramedullary tumour masses. The papulonodular lesions of leukaemia cutis present as brown-red to violaceous, indurated dermal papules, plaques, or nodules. Early lesions may be macular. Other rare clinical presentations of leukaemia cutis include bullae, ulcerations, and erythroderma resulting from diffuse leukaemic infiltration of the skin. Granulocytic sarcomas are extramedullary masses of leukaemic cells that may be found in the facial sinus, orbit, paravertebral area, long bones and lymph nodes. Extramedullary tumour masses are neoplastic infiltrates that are histologically composed of monoblasts and which, unlike granulocytic sarcomas, are found only in the setting of active leukaemia.

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